What Were These Differences and What Were the Major Causes for This to Be so?

What Were These Differences and What Were the Major Causes for This to Be so?
1. The civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt differ in profound ways. What were these differences and what were the major causes for this to be so?
There are many things that differ ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Some of these differences are their religion, agriculture, writing skills, and inventions as well as their ways of life. The major cause of the differences they had was the location of the area where they lived in. The area affected their lifestyles in different ways.
Mesopotamians were polygamists (worshiped multiple gods). Sumerians based their gods according to the forces in nature they also had a close relationship with their gods even though their gods were known to be cruel; their worship was also based around divinity. The Sumerians believed that they existed and were on earth to serve the gods. People of all ages would suffer the gods fury and face challenges as a punishment from the gods if they did not serve or worship the gods properly. Both the gods and the people needed each other for example the gods needed the people to admire them and maintain them, meanwhile the gods from time to time would give them gifts or favors. It was believed that the kings were the gods’ representatives on earth; the kings had special privileges and special tasks that they had to accomplish. For example the kings ruled by special divinity and were set apart/ away from all other people including the priests. Kings also had to respect and glorify the gods through offerings just as the rest of the people the only thing that was different was that the kings had a greater commitment than the rest because their power was greater than the peoples or priests. The Ubaid people created central locations for places of adoration, and the buildings were used for economic and administrative purposes. Uruk, was a more urbanized version of the Ubaid cities that formed after 4300 B.C. it became the first Sumerian City-State. The White Temple of Uruk is one of the most admirable buildings it is believed that it was used to worship the sky god, An. Ur-Nammu is accountable for building a temple in Ur this temple is the superlative temple because it is well preserved. Comparable temples were soon built in the majority city-states, which exhibits the significance of worship in local life.
Mesopotamia has a summer climate that its temperatures sometimes reach over 110˚ the soils are sandy receiving around 8 inches of rainfall a year. Mesopotamia is known to the world as the “Land between the Rivers” because the land lies between the Tigris and the Euphrates River. These rivers supply the water needed for the land, even though the rivers provide water for the land, they are both very aggressive and unpredictable. Both rivers were capable of flooding without any predictability and could change its course from year to year making agriculture very difficult. Around 5900 B.C. the Ubaid people established the first cities in Mesopotamia. Around this time, the Persian Gulf’s shore extended 100 miles inland than it does today. This permitted the Ubaid people to live in marshlands leading up to the development of irrigation systems. These irrigation systems incorporated canals and collection pools that were lined with stones. In addition, the creation of dikes and levees permitted a better control over the flooding of the rivers which directed the water towards the irrigation systems.
Around 4000 B.C. Mesopotamians were using ways to keep track of inventory. They would use clay tokens centuries later the tokens would be placed inside hollow balls made of clay. On the outside there would be an inscribed symbol which represented what was inside. Priests and scribes radically enhanced this form of inventory they did this by substituting the tokens inside the balls with flat clay tablets. The tablets where inscribed with symbols that represented the tokens. The tokens themselves were no longer required having the tablets around. Tokens could be sent as receipts of goods or they could be archived. The symbols then turned into a series of pictograms, which represented real objects. Over time though, pictograms started to represent more than just physical objects, but also ideas suggested by the object. Pictograms became symbols that represented spoken sounds called phonemes. In 3100 B.C. Sumerian scribes developed a tool used to make text easier, it was a wedge shaped reed called a Cuneiform. The cuneiform permitted for symbols to be placed in the clay at a faster pace. Sumerians are also known for the worlds oldest poetry.
The Sumerians were viewed as technological people because they had to do things on their own since they could not rely on their gods or the environment. The trade routes plays an important role in how the Sumerians become very useful of the products they buy also how they turn raw goods into sellable items. The development bronze came beside the writing age, this is known as the Bronze Age. Trade routes transported raw copper which Mesopotamians alloyed in the midst of tin and arsenic to produce weapons and tools. Another invention that is attributed to the Mesopotamians is the wheel.
The economic manufacture within the cities passed through the great temple warehouses where priests would distribute goods. Thousands of women and children were working in the making of textiles, this was important to each city’s independence, because it allowed them to be more independent.Each city had its own aristocracy, and almost half the population consisted of people who would help parcels of land which were sufficient to support themselves. The rest of the population consisted of people who were dependent of the temple for work, such as agricultural laborers or artisans. Most of these laborers were slaves, who were prisoners of war or people who had no money. Their slave sentence was limited to three years, at which point they had to be released. Babylonian and Assyrians social life was to spend time in pubs, parks, and spend money on prostitutes. These social outings were not limited only to men, women also could participate the more money spent on prostitutes and pubs showed your higher class in society.
Egypt had many gods just as the Mesopotamians did the only difference about the gods was that the Egyptian worship of gods directly rotated around two of them Osiris and Isis. Legend has it that Osiris and Isis were not only brother and sister, but husband and wife as well. Osiris was thought of as the “first pharaoh”, and the first god to hold kingship on earth. His brother Seth wanted the throne for himself, so he killed his brother Osiris and buried his body in a coffin. His sister, Isis, who was very faithful to Osiris recovered his body, and found a way to revive him long enough to conceive their son Horus. Seth was very irritated by this, and cut up Osiris’ body into small pieces and spread them all throughout Egypt. Isis with the help of Anubis, the god of the afterlife retrieved all of Osiris’ body parts and preserved them. Horus took vengeance for his father’s death and killed Seth. Osiris was then revived as the god of the underworld. The main idea of government in Egypt was based on the pharaoh and his association with the divine gods. This were some of the things that helped unify Egypt and make Egypt strong. The pharaoh was considered to be the ruler of Egypt, Egypt himself, and also a personification of the land, their gods and the people. For pharaohs, maintaining their rule over Egypt was difficult; many local civic and religious groups remained strong even after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Pyramids were built out of volunteer labor, they were not meant for places of worship. The pyramids were built during the Old Kingdom. There was only one temple that was built during the Middle Kingdom which was the Temple of Karnak
Egypt’s terrain ran was long the Nile River beginning at the first cataract, up to the Mediterranean Sea. Outside of Egypt’s constricted territory is nothing but a harsh desert environment. Nothing like the Tigris and Euphrates Rrivers, Egypt’s river the Nile River flows South to North, it is very mellow and predictable. The river would change every year by the flooding of the Nile River. Flooding the Nile made the soil fertile and easy to grow crops. Egypt’s civilization was built along the Nile River.
Egyptians also had their own form of writing it was called hieroglyphs. To the Greeks, hieroglyphs were unexplainable and called them “sacred carvings”. The creation of hieroglyphs dates back to 3200 B.C around the same time when pictograms started to emerge in Mesopotamia. The hieroglyphs remained a mystery until a French researcher used the Rosetta stone to translate their meaning. Different than Sumerian cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs never developed into a system of phonograms, but turned into a fast form of cursive called hieratic which they used for government and commerce a fast note taking version of hieratic was also developed. The scripts were written on perishable paper known as papyrus. Papyrus was produced by hammering, drying, and processing river weeds. The papyrus paper made it lighter, and portable compared to the clay tablets that the Mesopotamians were using. To make scrolls the Egyptians would sow the pieces together and made a large pieces of paper which could contain large amounts of information.
Although Egyptians were advanced in building pyramids, they were far less advanced than the Mesopotamians in their buildings. Egyptians were very astute in calculating time making close observations of the sun and stars. The precision they had led to the solar calendar, in the beginning it was meant for agricultural and religious purposes. Egyptians also had an irrigation system and a water-control system, like the Mesopotamians but it was far less advanced. Egyptians were great at math but another subject that they were good at was science. Egyptians would perform brain surgeries on people, spine surgery, and put braces on teeth. Another creation from the Egyptians was beer since they used barley for trade. Egyptians did not do these things for the cosmetic appearances but would perform surgeries to help/ make things better in a persons life. Mummification was also invented by the Egyptians to preserve the dead bodies. The richer the family of the deceased person was the more things they could do to the bodies to preserve them better. Pharaohs would be mummified, had some fragrances like myrrh on them and be put in caskets that’s where the inventions of coffins maybe came from. Egyptians also had business innovations such as the creation of wills, deeds, and contracts. Although Mesopotamians have the worlds oldest poetry Egyptians have the oldest currency in history.
Egyptian culture was different from Mesopotamia there was a big gap between the rich and the poor. Women were treated with much respect, women in ancient Egypt were granted to get divorces and own land. It was looked down upon women if they had more than one husband or were out in public with other men that was not their husband. Men in another had were allowed to have many concubines.
The main reason there were so many distinction s between the Mesopotamian culture and Egyptian culture was their location. Mesopotamians worshiped multiple gods whereas Egypt had multiple gods but only worshiped the two main Osiris and Isis. For Mesopotamians, collection of water and irrigation systems were more important to them because they did not have the same amount of water that Egypt had. Mesopotamia had a drier climate, very little rainfall meanwhile Egypt had renewing sources caused by the flooding of the Nile River. There are many differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt, but they are both developed in alike ways but at the same time they are different and that is due to the location.

QUESTION #2
Following the Persian Wars from 499-479 BC, the city-states felt a sense of unity because the only way they could defeat the Persians was if they worked together. Later on the Athenian’s began to get obstinate and believing that no one could or would defeat them. This conclusion from the Athenians made the city-state of Sparta irritated, because without the Spartan help the Athenians would have been defeated.
Athens had been trading with Persia for an extended period of time, but the Ionian Greeks sought to escape the power of the Persian Empire, and called the Athenians to help. Even from the time the wars started the sides were greatly unequal. The Persians were competent in producing over a million of armed and trained men, while the Greeks could hardly put together a few hundred men per city-state. Sparta and Athens were the only city-states that were able to bring at least 10,000 men. The intimidation of the Persian Empire weighed heavily upon Greece. During the summer of 490 B.C. a punitive mission of 20,000 soldiers under the dominion of Persia’s two best generals were able to cross the Aegean Sea and able to land on the shores of Euboea. Their forces burned and ran the city of Eretria to the ground, sending its inhabitants to Persian captivity. After the conquering of Eretria, the Persians crossed the narrow strait that lead into Attica, they landed on the Plain of Marathon. This was only 26 miles short from Athens. The Athenians recognized that they were in danger, and that they desperately needed help, the city-state was called to think of plans to be able to defeat the Persian army. The Athenians asked for Sparta’s help but the Spartans refused to help the Athenians due to a religious celebration. The polis of Plataea offered their help to the Athenians this polis was small but the Athenians needed all of the help they could get. The Athenian army was still outnumbered even with the help of the Plataea. After a few days of being on hold, the Athenian general Miltiades received a remark that the Persians were giving their horses some water, making their infantry vulnerable for attack. Miltiades initiated the attack that lead to a crippling effect on the Persian army. The Athenians defeated the Persians with no help from the Spartans. The Athenians discovered a deposit of silver ore, instead of splitting the money evenly the money was used to purchase a fleet of state-of-the-art warships, which lead to the preeminent naval power of the Greek world. After the defeat of Xerxes many years later, the Greeks won the war against the Persians.
During the fifty years after the Persian war, the Athenian Empire became large in number and their naval fleet was spiraling toward the military rival of Sparta. Athens came out as the Dalian League, this was a group of poleis whose legislative body met on the consecrated island of Delos and guaranteed to continue the war against Persia. The war against Persia was being fought in the Aegean Sea. Athens was the league’s leader, and controlled its resources and funds. The control over the funds created an additional tension amongst the city-states because they felt more like subject to the than a free poleis. The Athenian liberty rested on the service of others. Slaves would perform a lot of the work at home, meanwhile the allies of the Delian League helped Athens get resources and make it successful.In the 440’s the only army that was able to defeat the Athenian power was the Spartans. This was a problem because the city-states that were not part of the Delian League had to pay higher taxes, in order to be a part of the Delian league; atonement had to be paid. The Spartans and other city-states created a similar league and called it the Peloponnesian league. The Delian league was created to protect Greek independence, but then the League had turned into an tyrannical and imperialistic power.
War between Sparta and Athens broke out in 431 B.C. Both the Spartans and the Athenians believed that the war would be short, it ends up being that both parties were wrong in their conclusions. The war was dragged for 27 years. Both sides had overwhelmingly destroyed the proud heritage of the Greek freedom that they had so deeply treasured. By the time Athens accepted their defeat, all of the poleis were left without strength so such so that if an outside threat presented itself there would be no way of enduring such a thing. The Athenians wanted to defeat the Spartans by water because they knew that they would not be able to win the battle if they continued to fight on land. The Spartans on the other hand were trying to maintain the battle in the land because their fleet was not strong enough to crush the Athenians by sea. The whole population of Attica pulled out into the walls of Athens and its harbor, and did not make an effort to protect itself on the countryside against Sparta. As a result, the Athenians relied on supplies shipped in by its navy. The Spartans ransack the farms and territory of Attica, because they were aggravated that the Athenians would not take them in battle. The Athenians successfully ransack the Spartan territory with a sequence of attacks, but the over populated environment gave rise to a typhus epidemic that exterminated over a third of the population, including Pericles, the Athenian ruler. Alongside with the death of Pericles there also was a recognition that he was the only man that was capable of running the political forces he had given a free rein to. The Athenians were required to surrender and this surrender lead to the Spartans winning the war.
Many things lead into the Peloponnesian war, the biggest error was that the Athenians believed that they were superior above all of Greece. It was a matter of time before it blew up and it was a big war because it was due to the tyranny of the Delion league against the rest of the city-states.

Bibliography
Coffin, Judith, and Robert Stacey. Western Civilizations seventeeth edition. New York; London: W.W Norton & Company, 2011 .
Kajewski, Michelle.
Nye, Dr. Bruce. "The Ancient Near East Powerpoints."

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[ 1 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )
[ 2 ]. (Nye n.d.)
[ 3 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )Page 8
[ 4 ]. Ibid. Chap. 1 page 9
[ 5 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )page17
[ 6 ]. Ibid.Chap.1 page 9
[ 7 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 ) page 9
[ 8 ]. Ibid page 9
[ 9 ]. Ibid page 9
[ 10 ]. Ibid page 9
[ 11 ]. Ibid page 9
[ 12 ]. Ibid page 9
[ 13 ]. Ibid page 10
[ 14 ]. (Nye n.d.) slide 7
[ 15 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )page 14
[ 16 ]. Ibid page 14
[ 17 ]. Ibid page 14
[ 18 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )Page 10
[ 19 ]. Ibid page 10
[ 20 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )page 11
[ 21 ]. Ibid page 11
[ 22 ]. Ibid page 11
[ 23 ]. (Nye n.d.) slide 9
[ 24 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )29
[ 25 ]. Ibid page 29
[ 26 ]. Ibid page 29
[ 27 ]. Ibid page 29
[ 28 ]. (Nye n.d.) slide 15
[ 29 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )30
[ 30 ]. Ibid Page 30
[ 31 ]. Ibid page 30
[ 32 ]. Ibid page 24
[ 33 ]. Ibid page 24
[ 34 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )24
[ 35 ]. Kajewski notes
[ 36 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )Page 22
[ 37 ]. Ibid page 24
[ 38 ]. Ibid page 24
[ 39 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )25
[ 40 ]. Ibid page 25
[ 41 ]. Ibid page 25
[ 42 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )Page 26
[ 43 ]. Ibid page 29
[ 44 ]. Ibid page 29
[ 45 ]. (Nye n.d.)slide 17
[ 46 ]. Kajewski notes
[ 47 ]. Kajewski notes
[ 48 ]. Kajewski notes
[ 49 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )Page 90
[ 50 ]. Ibid page 91
[ 51 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 ) page 92
[ 52 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 )93
[ 53 ]. Ibid. Page 92
[ 54 ]. Ibid page 92
[ 55 ]. Ibid page 92
[ 56 ]. Ibid page 93
[ 57 ]. Ibid page 93
[ 58 ]. Ibid page 93
[ 59 ]. Ibid page 93
[ 60 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 ) page 98
[ 61 ]. Ibid page 93
[ 62 ]. Ibid Page 98
[ 63 ]. (Coffin and Stacey 2011 ) page99
[ 64 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 65 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 66 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 67 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 68 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 69 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 70 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 71 ]. Ibid page 99
[ 72 ]. Ibid page 99

What Were These Differences and What Were the Major Causes for This to Be so? 6.9 of 10 on the basis of 878 Review.