World History Essay

World History Essay
Settlers in early China, Nubia, Mesoamerica, and Central America had to be patient when it came to building a withstanding civilization due to the challenges to their ever- changing environments. Overwhelming hot and cold temperatures, rugged soil, and natural barriers withheld the people from developing a sustainable agricultural system, and therefore caused them to seek other survival methods.

China for instance, is surrounded by the Himalaya mountains on the southwest, the Tian mountains and the Takla Makan Desert on the west, and the Gobi Desert and grassy plains on the Mongolian steppe on the northwest. There is also the Pacific Ocean on the east. As a result of these natural obstacles, China relied on the trade between China, India, and Central Asia for jade, ivory and pearl which was very useful. On the other hand, there were the yellow and Yangzi Rivers to the east. This allowed for great agricultural success. In the north was dry, cold climates which called for technological, political, philosophical, and religious advances, was later abandoned for the warm, lush southern land. Over the years, yellowish- brown deposits made the soil manageable and so large labor forces came together to cultivate the land. Reoccurring floods caused these labor forces to build channels to control the overflowing water. Also, to restore from droughts, reservoirs were dug to store water. Eventually, the great harvests led to an increase in labor, which led to the production of silk cloth and bronze (later used for weapons and tools).

Since the beginning of time, Nubia has been tied to the thousand mile stretch of the Nile Valley between Aswan and Khartoum. But the ancient civilians know it as the “Land of the Bow” because its warriors favored the bow. Nubia connects the sub-Saharan Africa with north Africa. This served as a trade route for tropical Africa and the Mediterranean. Fortunately, Nubia was blessed with natural resources such as gold, copper, and semiprecious stones. This natural wealth played a major role in it’s advanced political organization, social stratification, metallurgy, monumental building and writing. As a result of the humid temperature in the north, irrigation was necessary to have an agriculture system. The need for irrigation also caused the formation of barriers by boulders and boat traffic. This then led to commerce and travel alongside the river to cross the desert. Thanks to the success in harvesting, hunting soon died and many villagers got accustomed to a life based on herding and farming. Meanwhile, Nubia made the record on account of trade missions to southern lands, which led to a build up of animosity between Egypt and Nubia. Later on, Meroe (a city in Nubia) was a major source for iron smelting and was known for being an advanced city for it’s time.

Mesoamerica was an extremely dynamic environment. It experienced earthquakes and volcanoes, mountains made microenvironments possible, the rainforest of southern Yucatan and Belize, and the drier forest in northern Yucatan. In response, Amerindians developed technology that “exploited” plants, animals, and minerals like obsidian, quartz, and jade. In the following years, trade and cultural exchanges began. Strong farming and trade led to powerful politicians and priests who would later organize drainage canals, irrigation systems, and significant buildings. The Olmec, was a strong civilization because of it’s plant diversity and fishing. Then the over-production of manioc and other crops led to craft specialization and social stratification. They would spend many years on artistry and constructing.

Meanwhile, the mountainous core, coastal plains, and interior jungle, played a major threat to the human population. This sparked the need for regional productions, social institutes, cultural values, and a lot of labor. The plenty fish along the coast of Peru helped the development of the first settlement. They also traded decorated shells for corn, textiles, religious motifs, and ideas. Then they began to construct ceremonial plazas, pyramids, irrigation systems, and mounds. The cultivation of maize then allowed for a greater urbanization. They increased the use of llamas for transportation, began building bridges, and dependent on trade even more, and like the Native Americans, learned to use the animals for food and clothing. They also mastered artistry, crafts, and pottery.

In closing, it is all so plain to see that these many different societies made a civilization although they all had major natural forces that they had to overcome first and it requires a lot of patience and labor to achieve a successful survival strategy.

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