Explain How and Why Referrals Are Made Between Agencies.

Explain How and Why Referrals Are Made Between Agencies. Please answer all the questions below. For your information - all guidance notes are at the end of the questions.
1.1. Outline the current legislation covering home based childcare, and the role of
Regulatory bodies...
The two most important pieces of legislation covering home-based childcare are the Children Act (2004) and the Childcare Act (2006)

Children Act (2004)
This influential piece of legislation arose from the Green Paper ‘Every Child Matters’ and identifies five outcomes for all children:
* Be healthy
* Stay safe
* Enjoy and achieve
* Make a positive contribution
* Achieve economic well-being
These outcomes should underpin all practice of a childminder.

Childcare Act (2006)
This Act introduced the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) curriculum into England and Wales, and place a statutory duty on the local authority to work towards ensuring the five outcomes set out in the Children Act (2004) are being met.

Other relevant legislation is:

Equality Act (2010)
The intention of this Act is to combine the fragmented discrimination legislation, bringing together the Sex Discrimination Act (1975), Race Relations Act (1976), and DDA (1995). Promotion of equal opportunities in all settings is essential, and relevant policies and procedures should be developed, monitored and assessed.

Education Act (1997)
This Act incorporates all previous Acts since 1944. It recognise the rights of parents regarding their children’s education and set a time frame on the legal process for identifying and assessing a child’s needs as set out in the Code of Practice.

Public Health (Control of Disease) Act (1984), RIDDOR (1995) and Health Protection Agency Act (2004)
All these legislations are focused on protecting people’s health, covering notification and exclusion periods for certain infectious diseases and reporting of certain accidents and incidents.

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1.2. Develop policies and procedures for:  accidents, illness and emergencies  behaviour  safeguarding  equal opportunities and explain how these will be
implemented.
Policies | Summary | Implemented |
accidents, illness and emergencies | The safety of your child is paramount and I will take every measure I can to protect your child from hurting themselves. However, sometimes accidents do happen. I have written the following procedure on how I will deal with such a situation: * I will comfort the child and reassure them. * I will assess the extent of their injuries and if necessary call for medical support/ambulance. * I will give any first aid procedures that are necessary. I have been trained to carry out to these procedures and have required certificate. * Once the child is more settled I will contact you as soon as possible to inform you of the accident, and if necessary I will ask you to return to care for your child / meet me at the hospital.After every accident, however minor I will: * Complete a report in my accident book. * Ask you to sign the report.If the incident requires any medical treatment then I will: * Inform Ofsted * Inform my Insurance Company. * Contact the NCMA for additional advice/support.It is important that you keep me informed regarding your child’s condition following an accident and if you have sought medical adviceHealth and Safety PolicyThe Health and Safety of your child is very important to me and I have therefore documented the following procedures that I have in place to support this. * All toys will be checked and cleaned regularly to ensure they are safe for your child to use. Any broken or hazardous toys will be removed immediately. Children will only be offered toys and resources that are suitable for their age/stage of development * I do a risk assessment of my home every morning before the children arrive to ensure that it is a safe environment for minded children. * Children will not be allowed in the kitchen area at any time. (except for helping cook or similar activites) * All plug sockets not in use have socket covers. * All equipment will be checked and cleaned regularly. All equipment is fitted with the correct safety harnesses to prevent accidents, for example highchair and pushchairs. * I use safety equipment appropriate for the children in my care, ie stair gates, cupboard locks etc. These are checked regularly. * I will keep my front door locked to prevent the children opening the door to strangers. * I have procedures in place in the event of a fire (see separate policy) * I keep my kitchen very clean, following hygiene guidelines on the storing of food, keeping the fridge at the correct temperature etc * I ensure that the children do not have access to any waste. I do not permit smoking in my home. * I follow strict hygiene guidelines to prevent cross contamination. * The bathroom will be kept clean and all hazardous materials kept out of reach of the children. Children will wash their hands before all snacks and meals. * I have strict Child protection guidelines in place * Children must stay with me when we are away from the home. Younger children will be strapped in a pushchair; older children will either be on a harness or wrist strap, or holding onto my hand/pushchair. * I have emergency contact details with me at all times should I need to contact the parents / guardian. * I will work with you to teach the children about safety issues like crossing the road and stranger danger. * I will work with you to teach the children about making healthy food choices and physical exercise. * Sleeping children will be regularly observed and a baby monitor will be used where required. * I will restrain a child if they are putting themselves or others in danger, for example running into a road. | I have this in my policy that I show to each parent when wishing their child to be cared for by myself. And ensure they sign the policy in agreement |
behaviour | I help the children understand my house rules, which are realistic and I am consistent in the enforcing of them. I do not give out confusing signals, Saying No means No!I am aware of the different reasons why children misbehave and will endeavour to keep to routines so that your child feels safe and is not over tired or hungry.However all children will misbehave at sometime. I have developed several different strategies on how to deal with a child misbehaving and use different ones depending on the age/stage of ability of the child and the situation: * Distraction. Remove the child from the situation and give them an alternative activity. * Ignore. Depending on the situation I may ignore the bad behaviour as I feel it is being done to get a reaction. * Discuss with Child. If the child is able to understand I will discuss their behaviour and try and get them to appreciate the consequences of their actions on others. I inform them that it is their behaviour I do not like, not them. * Time Out. Removing the child from the activity and sitting them quietly for a few minutes.I will never smack, shake or hurt your child. I will not humiliate your child.If a child misbehaves I will let you know by either writing it in their contact book or by ringing you later after collection. Some children can become upset if the incident is retold in front of them. I will also inform you of how the matter was dealt with. | I have this in my policy that I show to each parent when wishing their child to be cared for by myself. And ensure they sign the policy in agreement |
safeguarding | Safeguarding Children PolicyMy responsibility as a childminder is to ensure the safety and welfare of children in my care.I have received training on safeguarding children issues and am aware of the signs and symptoms of abuse, physical, emotional and sexual, and those of neglect. If I have any reason to suspect a problem I will seek advice from the Child Protection Team and / or discuss with the parent.If I have reason to believe that any child in my care is being abused in any way I will follow the local safeguarding children board procedures and report the matter to the Social Services. Under these circumstances I will not be able to keep information relating to your child confidential, but will need to share it with Ofsted, Social Services and the Police if requested.The safety of your child is paramount and I will take every measure I can to protect your child from hurting themselves. However, sometimes accidents do happen. I have written the following procedure on how I will deal with such a situation: * I will comfort the child and reassure them. * I will assess the extent of their injuries and if necessary call for medical support/ambulance. * I will give any first aid procedures that are necessary. I have been trained to carry out to these procedures and have required certificate. * Once the child is more settled I will contact you as soon as possible to inform you of the accident, and if necessary I will ask you to return to care for your child / meet me at the hospital.After every accident, however minor I will: * Complete a report in my accident book. * Ask you to sign the report.If the incident requires any medical treatment then I will: * Inform Ofsted * Inform my Insurance Company. * Contact the NCMA for additional advice/support.It is important that you keep me informed regarding your child’s condition following an accident and if you have sought medical advice. | I have this in my policy that I show to each parent when wishing their child to be cared for by myself. And ensure they sign the policy in agreement |
equal opportunities | Inclusion and Anti-bias PolicyI give all children in my care the opportunity to reach their full potential. Sometimes this means adapting an activity to the child’s ability and stage of development, providing additional resources or giving one child more attention and support than others during a particular activity or routine.All children in my care are given the opportunity to play with all the toys (subject to health and safety with children under 3 years of age). No toys are just for girls or just for boys. I try to ensure my toys reflect positive images of children and people from different cultures and with different abilities.No child in my care will be discriminated against in anyway, whether for their skin colour, culture, gender, ability or religion. I will challenge any remarks that I feel are inappropriate.I encourage the children in my care to learn more about their own culture and to find out about the culture and religions of other children. We do in this in a fun way through sharing books, cooking and eating food from around the world.I encourage the children to develop a healthy respect of each other’s differences and to value everyone as an individual.I encourage Parents to share with us any festivals, special occasions or artefacts, which may enhance the children’s learning and understanding. | I have this in my policy that I show to each parent when wishing their child to be cared for by myself. And ensure they sign the policy in agreement |

1.3. Explain the importance of confidentiality and data protection.
I aim to ensure that all parents can share information in the confidence that it will only be used to enhance the welfare of their children.I meet the requirements of the Human Rights Act 1998 with regard to protecting the individual's rights to a private family life, home and correspondence. Our only justification to interfere with this ‘right’ is where we believe that a child may be at risk of significant harm, to prevent a crime or disorder.I meet the requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998 with regard to the information kept about families, including how it is collected, stored and used.I have regard to the Common Law Duty of Confidentiality and only share information with other professionals or agencies on a ‘benefit to know’ basis, with consent from parents, or without their consent in specified circumstances relating to safeguarding children.Personal recordsThese include: * Registration and admission forms. * Signed contract and policy. * Correspondence concerning the child or family. * Observations by me on any confidential matter involving the child, such as developmental concerns or child protection matters, incident and accident logs; care plans; behaviour plans et cetera.These confidential records are stored securely.Parents have access to the files and records of their own children but do not have access to information about any other child.I will not discuss personal information given by parents with other parents, except where it affects planning for the child's needs. And only upon permission of the given parent.Information Sharing concerning Child Protection IssuesThere are times when I am required to share information about a child or their family. These are when there are: * Concerns a child is or may be suffering significant harm. * Concerns about ‘serious harm to adults’ (such as domestic violence or other matters affecting the welfare of parents).I explain to families about our duty to share information for the above reasons.If I have concerns, I would gain consent from families to share these. This does not have to be in writing, but a written record will be made that verbal consent has been given.I do not seek consent from parents to share information where we believe that a child, or a vulnerable adult, may be endangered by seeking to gain consent. For example, where we have cause to believe a parent may try to cover up abuse or threaten a child.IF I make a decision to share information without consent it is recorded in the child's file and the reason clearly stated.If evidence to support my concerns is not clear I may seek advice from the local Social Care agency or the NSPCC.I only share relevant information that is accurate, factual, non-judgemental and up to date.Information Sharing Concerning a Child's DevelopmentI am committed to the development of the children attending my childcare. With the introduction of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a higher emphasis on providing high quality care through partnership and collaboration, I will be observing the development of EYFS children during their time with me. With the permission of parents I will be sharing this with other services that may be involved in the care of your children such as schools and external support agencies. |

1.6. Identify sources of support and information for the setting up and running of your home
based childcare business.
OFSTED ; Ofsted is the national governing body in charge of registering and inspecting childcarers in England and Wales making sure they meet the national standards for childcaring. Visit Ofsted at Ofsted.gov.uk or call 08456 404045.There are hundreds of childcare groups and local associations that always welcome new members. As well as providing services such as equipment loan schemes. Childcare groups hold social events and drop-in sessions where you can meet up with other childcarers. Join a recognised association that can offer you quality support in terms of fees, expenses, contracts, insurance, tax and national insurance, milk refunds and training.Joining NCMA gives you all the following benefits:-------------------------------------------------
Tailored AdviceNCMA provides its members with regularly updated information and advice on all aspects of being a registered childcarer from working out your tax allowances to negotiating a childcare contract.-------------------------------------------------
Free Legal RepresentationFor peace of mind, as an NCMA member you will be entitled to free legal representation on childcare matters and to free advice on professional and legal matters.-------------------------------------------------
Who Minds? MagazineNCMA's colourful quarterly magazine will keep you up to date with news and issues affecting childcarers, features on child development and offers and giveaways.-------------------------------------------------
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2.1. Explain the key components of a healthy and safe home based environment.
* Risk Assessments- I must undertake a risk assessment for premises and security, outings, toys and furniture, meal times, and transporting children. To ensure that everything I plan for the children , is safe secure and age appropriate. * Fire Escape Plan- I must have an escape plan , so I can safely remove the children from danger and take the necessary plan in place to ensure they continue to be safe and cared for once out of the danger area. * Smoke alarms – I must install and maintain that fire alarms in my home are working at all times. * Fire blanket – I must ensure that a fire blanket is within easy reach so it can be accessed and used quickly and safely. * Correct disposal of waste, nappies etc – I must ensure all waste is disposed of safely and out of children’s reach * Hand washing – I must incorporate good hygiene in my home to ensure the health of all persons in my home * Cupboard locks and alarms –I Must keep cupboards containing hazardous things locked and out of reach of children * First Aid training and kits – I keep a first aid kit fully stocked and make sure I renew my first aid training in paediatrics every 3 years * Food prep areas – I must ensure that all surfaces used for food prep and consumption is clean and clear. * Child Protection Training Registers – I must keep myself up to date with information and contact numbers for child protection agencies. * Contracts how will you carry emergency info with you when you go out? – I keep a small book with emergency details of each child and child’s name and address * Data Protection of info on Computer, Digital Photos and info carried on Phones (How would that be safe if your phone was stolen?) – I only use photos for the child’s personal book . once they are printed and placed in their book . all pictures are deleted from all digital devices |

2.2. Explain the principles of safe supervision of children in the home based setting and off
site.
It is important that as a carer I take positive steps to promote safety within the setting and also whilst on outings. I cannot always shield minded children from all potential hazards but we should make sure that proper precautions are taken to prevent accidents.
1. Risk assessments/policies
The first step into thinking about safe supervision of children is to be aware of the risks and hazards in my setting and when going out. By recognizing these risks and creating plans, including actions that can be taken to prevent them, I can be better prepared within my provision and when venturing out with the children. I also ensure that I have signed consent forms from the parent of each child , so that they are fully aware of my policy on how i will safely supervise their child. These forms will be kept safely and confidential.
2. Security
Premises indoors and out should be secure. Children should not be able to get out on their own, unsupervised. ALL children should be supervised at ALL times (especially on outings). Doors should be locked and keys away from the reach of children.
Children should only be handed over to the adult that I have seen and arranged to collect them.
Keeping escape route areas clear so not to cause obstruction.3.Toys All toys will be checked and cleaned regularly to ensure they are safe for your child to use. Any broken or hazardous toys will be removed immediately. Children will only be offered toys and resources that are suitable for their age/stage of development4. Behaviour and rulesI will help the children understand the importance of behaving so not to hurt others or themselves whilst in my supervision.I will help the children understand my house rules, which are realistic and I am consistent in the enforcing of them. I do not give out confusing signals, Saying No means No!I am aware of the different reasons why children misbehave and will endeavour to keep to routines so that your child feels safe and is not over tired or hungry.However all children will misbehave at sometime. I have developed several different strategies on how to deal with a child misbehaving and use different ones depending on the age/stage of ability of the child and the situation, |

2.3. Identify ways of ensuring that equipment is suitable for children and meets safety
requirements.
* All toys will be checked and cleaned regularly to ensure they are safe for your child to use. Any broken or hazardous toys will be removed immediately. Children will only be offered toys and resources that are suitable for their age/stage of development * I do a risk assessment of my home every morning before the children arrive to ensure that it is a safe environment for minded children. * Checking all equipment for ware and tare and removing broken items and or fixing them * All equipment will be checked and cleaned regularly. All equipment is fitted with the correct safety harnesses to prevent accidents, for example highchair and pushchairs. * I use safety equipment appropriate for the children in my care, ie stair gates, cupboard locks etc. These are checked regularly. * I will keep my front door locked to prevent the children opening the door to strangers. * I keep my kitchen very clean, following hygiene guidelines on the storing of food, keeping the fridge at the correct temperature etc * I ensure that the children do not have access to any waste. * The bathroom will be kept clean and all hazardous materials kept out of reach of the child * I will ensure that cots, beds or sofa is clean and clear for Sleeping children and the baby monitor kept in working order. |

2.4. Know where to obtain current guidance on health and safety risk assessment of the home based work setting.
I understand that working from home, I must keep up to date information on the guidance of health and safety risk assessments . I can obtain this information from Ofsted , ncma, my local childrens information service and online. I must then change my risk assessments in accordance with any .changes |

2.5. Explain how to store and administer medicines.

I must ensure that I read the instructions fully on the medicine required by the child. To know whether it is to be stored in or out of the fridge. I must ensure that dose is measured correctly and given to the child on or in an appropriate spoon or dispenser. I must ensure that all medicines are kept out of reach of all children . I must obtain written consent from the child’s parents before administering the medicine and note times and dosage given and make the parent aware of this when they collect their child . |

3.1. Explain the importance of partnership with parents for all aspects of the child care
Service
Parents and carers hold essential information about their children, and have a crucial role to play in their children's education. In my early years setting, parents and carers have support to enable them to choose the provision which best meets the needs of their children and themselves. The Parents and I work together in partnership, sharing knowledge of the child, respecting, valuing and supporting each other. I recognise and respect the personal and emotional investment of parents in their children's well-being and development and their differing needs, while encouraging parental engagement in their children's learning. This is essential to ensure consistency of provision and smooth transfer for children between my setting and their homes. I recognise that partnerships can be challenging, I'm required to be positive and collaborative in my attitude and, in some circumstances I am able to give additional support and encouragement for parents.

3.2. Describe how partnership with parents are set up and maintained.

It is vital to set up a positive partnership with parents from the beginning; this is done by 1. Arranging to meet a few times before the child is cared for. 2. Ensuring That I as the childcarer receive all the information I need about their child ,ie) their likes , dislikes, what special names they have for items ect . 3. Find out the needs of the parent and child. 4. Discuss how I run my setting. 5. Ensure we set out enough time to talk about their child at the beginning and at the end of their time with me, to exchange important information and give details of their child’s day. 6. I will carry out monthly assessments and will set aside time to discuss their child’s development and any concerns I may have, and give the parent opportunity to give their views on their child and myself and my setting. |

4.1. Explain how routines are based on:  meeting a child’s needs  agreements with parents  participation of children.

Routines should flow with the child’s needs . Babies and children are individuals first each with a unique profile and abilities. It is important that planning starts with the observation of each child in order to consider their interests, development and learining stage. |
| Routines is set up by planning of a day by time, activity, etc. Children understand it as a routine; it is the way in which they learn what will or will not happen next. Routines are made by the childcarer upon discussion and agreement with the parents.
Routines are important for children because they need to know what’s coming next. If the routine is consistent, children learn the pattern. Once a pattern is set children can know for instance, that lunch comes after music time. This way, there aren’t too many unknowns. Rotines help build trust between child care providers and children. Young children begin to understand that adults will take care of their needs on a regular basis. When children have too many unknowns, anxiety builds up and they start showing emotional reactions to the inconsistency. For instance, they may cry or become irritable and take it out on other people. If they don’t have regular routines it starts showing in different ways.
Let’s say that a child is used to having lunch at 11:30 am every day. And for some reason, lunch is late and the child doesn’t get to eat until 1:00 pm. You may see the child crying and being irritable. You can try to talk to them, but they will no longer enjoy the things that they normally do. Breaking a schedule throws a child completely off. It’s especially important for child care providers to maintain consistent routines when caring for young children.

Parents should continue the consistency of the weekday routines when kids are at home. Parents will find that if the schedules are unpredictable on the weekends and evenings, children will exhibit inappropriate behavior.

Parents these days are extremely busy. But I would recommend that they are consistent with two things – meals and naps. If these two areas are kept in schedule, their level of anxiety will drop; children will not be tired or hungry, two things that can be a great challenge for parents and children. It is vital that the childcare giver sets aside a time at drop off and collection time to exchange information about the child.

Other strategies to keep in mind are to have snacks with you at all times so that if you know meal time is coming and you can’t eat exactly at 11:30, you can give your child a snack to diffuse the situation until you can get them to eat. |
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4.2. Explain how they would adapt routines to meet the needs of children at different ages and stages of development.

The ideal daily routine is one that meets the needs of each of the children, your own family and yourself . This is a challenging goal at the best of times. Planning will help. So will remembering that many activities, from cooking to imaginative play to taking a walk in your neighbourhood and outings, can meet a variety of developmental needs at the same time. Children of different ages and stages don’t always have to be involved in different activities, just find ways to make activities easier for the little ones and more challenging for the older children. When some of the children need a nap time set an area for quiet activities for the older children . When the older children need homework time, set the younger children with toys so I can easily help at the homework table.Also to ensure that each child has access to toys / games and activities appropriate for each child needs and age throughout their day. |

4.3. Explain how they ensure that each child is welcomed and valued in the home based
work setting.

I would help the child become familiar with my setting, by showing them around my home and where everything is and explain what happens in each area.. I will give them lots of reassurance so the child feels safe and cared for by myself. this will enable the child to be confident to explore and try out new things. I will ensure I provide things they are interested in . I will meet the needs of that child and respond sensitively to their feelings, ideas and behavior
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5.1. Explain the importance of play to children’s learning and development and the need for
an inclusive approach.

Play underpins all development and learning in young children, Most Children play spontaneously and it is through play that they develop intellectually, creativity, physically, socially and emotionally. It is important to provide indoor and outdoor play which involves enjoyment and challenge. In playing children behave in different ways sometimes their play will be responsive or boisterous. Sometimes they may describe and discuss what they are doing sometimes they be quiet and reflective. This is a good way to observe and reflect on childrens development to help plan for further development. This is also good practice of being inclusive of everyone by treating children as individuals making sure they are respected, valued and accepted regardless of social or ethnic background or abilities or health status .Ensure I am being a positive role model and that I am challenging stereotypes and offensive remarks and attitudes appropriately whilst acknowledging children have rights and responsibilities. |

5.3. Explain what can be learned about children by observing them at play.

When Children are playing they behave in different ways sometimes their play will be responsive or boisterous. Sometimes they may describe and discuss what they are doing sometimes they be quiet and reflective. I can note their personal, social and emotional development,communication, language and literacyproblem solving, reasoning and numeracyknowledge and understanding of the worldand their creativity development. |

5.4. Identify how and why it is important that children receive equal treatment and access,
based on their individual needs and acknowledging their rights.

In order for me to be inclusive and promote children’s rights, I will need to have an understanding of children’s development. Through this understanding you can plan and provide appropriate activities and experiences which will meet individual needs, and will stimulate and promote development and growth. The rights of all children are paramount and it is essential that as a childcarer I protect and promote those rights. It is also important that my setting is inclusive, one where everyone is welcomed, and that I think about my attitude towards all children and their families. To try to explain what is a ‘right’ people sometimes talk about the difference between ‘wants’ and ‘needs’. Wants are idealistic things that are not vital to our lives, such as a plasma screen television. Needs are the things that we must have or be in order to thrive and live well, such as fresh, clean water. Rights are like needs. They are basic things that we must have or be able to do in order to live a healthy and secure life. Other people have a duty to respect and meet these needs or rights. It is the government’s responsibility to make sure that people’s rights are met and it also has a responsibility to help parents, childcare practitioners and guardians meet the needs and rights of children and young people. |

5.5. Compare how other resources available for children support their play.

Their are a variety of resources I can use to support each childs play , such as; Libraries - Book loan, cd, dvd, craft activities, gallery ..Mobile library services provide resources where transport, logisticas of travelling to a library buildings and their services may be more difficult.Toy library and toy loan networks.Local park - playground equipment, field and seatingSchool , health centre, toddler groups.Signing up to newsletters, alert and notification services:
support and campaign awareness events, safety, police, fire brigade, road safety, fundraising - big toddleNature trail areas.Museums and organised eventsswimming poolSoft play and larger, adventure play providers.Animal care and rescue centresMusic and movement providersLocal interest groups - WI, carnival, theatrical, gardening/horticultural, needlecraft, fanciers .. |

6.1. Explain the concept of safeguarding and the duty of care that applies to all
practitioners.

My responsibility as a childminder is to ensure the safety and welfare of children in my care.I have received training on safeguarding children issues and am aware of the signs and symptoms of abuse, physical, emotional and sexual, and those of neglect. If I have any reason to suspect a problem I will seek advice from the Child Protection Team and / or discuss with the parent.If I have reason to believe that any child in my care is being abused in any way I will follow the local safeguarding children board procedures and report the matter to the Social Services. Under these circumstances I will not be able to keep information relating to your child confidential, but will need to share it with Ofsted, Social Services and the Police if requested.The safety of your child is paramount and I will take every measure I can to protect your child from hurting themselves. However, sometimes accidents do happen. I have written the following procedure on how I will deal with such a situation: * I will comfort the child and reassure them. * I will assess the extent of their injuries and if necessary call for medical support/ambulance. * I will give any first aid procedures that are necessary. I have been trained to carry out to these procedures and have required certificate. * Once the child is more settled I will contact you as soon as possible to inform you of the accident, and if necessary I will ask you to return to care for your child / meet me at the hospital.After every accident, however minor I will: * Complete a report in my accident book. * Ask you to sign the report.If the incident requires any medical treatment then I will: * Inform Ofsted * Inform my Insurance Company. * Contact the NCMA for additional advice/support.It is important that you keep me informed regarding your child’s condition following an accident and if you have sought medical advice |

6.2. Outline the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause
concern in the context of safeguarding.

The physical signs of sexual abuse may include: ƒ pain or itching in the genital area ƒ bruising or bleeding near genital area ƒ sexually transmitted disease ƒ vaginal discharge or infection ƒ stomach pains ƒ discomfort when walking or sitting down ƒ pregnancy Changes in behaviour which can also indicate sexual abuse include: ƒ sudden or unexplained changes in behaviour e.g. becoming aggressive or withdrawn ƒ fear of being left with a specific person or group of people ƒ having nightmares ƒ running away from home ƒ sexual knowledge which is beyond their age, or developmental level ƒ sexual drawings or language ƒ bedwetting ƒ eating problems such as overeating or anorexia ƒ self-harm or mutilation, sometimes leading to suicide attempts ƒ saying they have secrets they cannot tell anyone about ƒ substance or drug abuse ƒ suddenly having unexplained sources of money ƒ not allowed to have friends (particularly in adolescence) ƒ acting in a sexually explicit way towards adults Neglect Neglect can be a difficult form of abuse to recognise, yet have some of the most lasting and damaging effects on children. The physical signs of neglect may include: ƒ constant hunger, sometimes stealing food from other children ƒ constantly dirty or ‘smelly’ ƒ loss of weight, or being constantly underweight ƒ inappropriate clothing for the conditions. Changes in behaviour which can also indicate neglect may include: ƒ complaining of being tired all the time ƒ not requesting medical assistance and/or failing to attend appointments ƒ having few friends ƒ mentioning being left alone or unsupervised. Bullying Bullying is not always easy to recognise as it can take a number of forms. A child may encounter bullying attacks that are: ƒ physical: pushing, kicking, hitting, pinching and other forms of violence or threats ƒ verbal: name-calling, sarcasm, spreading rumours, persistent teasing ƒ emotional: excluding (sending to Coventry), tormenting, ridiculing, humiliating. Persistent bullying can result in: ƒ depression ƒ low self-esteem ƒ shyness ƒ poor academic achievement ƒ isolation ƒ threatened or attempted suicide Signs that a child may be being bullied can be: ƒ coming home with cuts and bruises ƒ torn clothes ƒ asking for stolen possessions to be replaced ƒ losing dinner money ƒ falling out with previously good friends ƒ being moody and bad tempered ƒ wanting to avoid leaving their home ƒ aggression with younger brothers and sisters ƒ doing less well at school ƒ sleep problems ƒ anxiety ƒ becoming quiet and withdrawn |

6.3. Outline regulatory requirements for safeguarding children that affect home
based childcare.

The welfare requirements of the EYFS in England,must be met by all providers.
These are legal and it's an offense not to comply with them.
Specific details relating to safeguarding can be found in the EYFS statutory framework.
Must have written policies in place for safeguarding.
As well as all other policies, it must be reviewed regularly and shared with parents.
You need an enhanced crb disclosure as well as other members of your family over 16.
There are very clear procedures for responding to suspected cases of child abuse, The Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) is a multi-agency body working within each local authority. It holds the responsibility for producing safeguarding procedures. The LSCB will contact other relevant professionals and the child's parents after you have raised a concern. |

6.4. Explain the procedures that need to be followed by lone workers in home based
settings when harm or abuse are suspected or alleged, either against them or third
parties.

I ensure that any Child protection concerns that I identify from a child are kept confidential and only shared with people who need to know this information.

If an allegation is made against me, I will report it to Ofsted and social services following the Safeguarding Children Board procedures in England. I will also contact NCMA’s safeguarding children service for advice and support.

FIRSTLY I will record:
• The child’s full name and address
• The date and time of the records
• Factual details for the concern, for example bruising, what the chid said, who was present.
• Details of any previous concernsSECONDLY talk to parents
• Keeping Details of any explanation from the parents
• Detail Any action taken from speaking to parents. |
LASTLY report my concernes about a child’s welfare, I will contact the Children’s Services Department Tel. 0845 603 5620 8.30 am -5.00 pm or out of hours 0845 600 4555, Ofsted Tel. 0300 123 4666 and the National Childminding Association (NCMA), for advice and support |

7.1. Describe typical behaviours exhibited by children linked to their stage of development and key events in their lives.

0 – 12 monthsIn the first year after birth, babies depend completely on adults for basic needs such as food, comfort, and warmth. If the childcarer meets these needs reliably, the babies become attached and develop a sense of security. Otherwise, they may develop a mistrustful, insecure attitude. Which will result crying outbursts1 – 3 yearsBetween the ages of one and three, toddlers start to gain independence and learn skills such as toilet training, feeding themselves, and dressing themselves. Depending on how they face these challenges, toddlers can develop a sense of autonomy or a sense of doubt and shame about themselves. Resulting In a Frustration Tantrum or biting and hitting3- 6 yearsBetween the ages of three and six, children must learn to control their impulses and act in a socially responsible way. If they can do this effectively, children become more self- confident. If not, they may develop a strong sense of guilt. Resulting in the child behaving Resentfully, Name Calling or Hurting others feelings6-12 yearsBetween the ages of six and twelve, children compete with peers in school and prepare to take on adult roles. They end this stage with either a sense of competence or a sense of inferiority. The child could be Agressive |

7.2. Explain how ground rules for behaviour and expectations are developed and implemented.

Having rules let everyone in the home setting know how to behave. They help everyone achieve a balance between getting what they want and respecting the needs of others. They can help children and teenagers feel safe and secure. Effective rules are positive statements about how your home setting wants to look after and treat its members.When rules are stated clearly and unambiguously, they help:children and young people learn where the limits are, and what’s expected of themadults be consistent in the way they treat younger family members.Who to involve in making rulesIt’s important to involve everyone as much as possible when developing rules.Children as young as three can have meaningful discussions with childcarer/parents about what rules are and why they’re needed.As children get older, they can contribute even more when deciding what the rules should be, as well as the consequences for breaking them. By the time they reach adolescence, involvement in rule-making will give children valuable experience in taking responsibility for their own behaviour.Involving your child in creating both the family rules and the consequences for breaking them helps her understand and accept them.What to make rules aboutChoose the most important things to make rules about – for example, a rule about not physically hurting each other would be a must . You might also develop rules about:safetymannerspolitenessdaily routineshow you treat each other.Everyones rules will be different. The standards you create will be influenced by your beliefs, values, your situation and your child’s maturity and needs.Kinds of rulesRules come in different shapes and sizes. But all good rules have something in common: they are specific and easy to understand.‘Do’ rules

‘Do’ rules are good teaching tools, and they’re best in most situations because they guide your child’s behaviour in a positive way. Here are some examples:Sit down to eat.Speak in a polite voice.Wear your seatbelt in the car.Be gentle with each other.Be home by curfew.‘Don’t’ rules

It’s best to have more ‘do’ than ‘don't’ rules – use ‘don’t’ rules when it’s difficult to explain exactly what to do instead. Here are some examples:Don’t spit.Don’t ask for things in the supermarket.have rules for:travelling in the carvisiting another person’s houseusing the computeroutings.
A few clear and specific rules are likely to be more effective than a long list. This is especially true for younger children, who are less able to remember them. As children get older and more mature, the rules can ‘grow’ along with them. If your child tends to break the rules, you might need to choose your battles and focus on basic issues like safety and fairness.How to develop rulesChildren and teenagers appreciate being involved in the rule-making process.Taking part in discussions about rules won’t necessarily stop young people from breaking them. It will, however, help them understand what the rules are and why they’re needed. It useful to write down a set of rules about how everyone is expected to behave. Writing them down makes them clear, and can also prevent arguments about what is or isn’t allowed. Sticking the rules on the fridge, or in another prominent spot, can help younger children be constantly aware of them.Written rules are also helpful for teenagers. For children of this age, instead of making the rules public by sticking them on the fridge, it’s a good idea to keep them somewhere a little more private that's still close to hand for when you need to refer to them. I will explain to each parent my rules on behaviour and ask them to sign my written policy on how i implement this. I will also work with the parents to ensure that my expectations on behaviour and rule breaking are kept to. |

Guidance notes – Key components:  hygiene and waste disposal  storage and preparation of food care of animals  using equipment according to manufacturer’s guidance appropriate responses to illnesses, allergies, incidents and accidents.Safety requirements: According to the requirements of the registering body inthe relevant UK Home Nation..Routines:  arrivals and departures  taking children to and from school/playgroup/pre-school  meal and snack times  sleep and rest  play and activities off site visits  outdoor activities  homework and evening activities for school agechildren.Inclusive approach:  treating children as individuals who are respected, valued and accepted regardless of social or ethnic background or abilities or health status  being a positive role model  challenging stereotypes and offensive remarks and attitudes appropriately  acknowledging children have rights and responsibilities.Other resources e.g.:  libraries  drop ins  toy libraries  equipment loan schemes.Typical behaviours e.g.:  toddler tantrums  separation anxiety. |

Explain How and Why Referrals Are Made Between Agencies. 8.8 of 10 on the basis of 1502 Review.