Psychology’S Timeline

Psychology’S Timeline1. PSYCHOLOGY’S TIMELINE

Name: ___Feng Gao Section:

Date: 2/09/2012

This activity will take you on a tour through the history of psychology. You will learn how psychology grew out of philosophy and medical physiology, and will become acquainted with some of the pioneers of psychology as a scientific discipline.

Famous Psychologists
Can you think of any famous psychologists from psychology’s history?
Alfred Adler, Mary Ainsworth

The Early History: Philosophers and Scientists
Match each of the philosophers and scientists with their descriptions AND write in the approximate year of their contribution.

__F____ Aristotle (_320 b.c._) 320 b.c. A. British philosopher, empiricist

__B___ Darwin (1830__) 360 b.c. B. Greek philosopher, nativist

__E___ Descartes (_1600_) 1600 C. British biologist

___D__ Helmholz (1860__) 1700 D. German physiologist

__C___ Locke (_1700_) 1830 E. French philosopher, nativist, and
dualist

___B___ Plato (_360B.C._) 1860 F. Greek philosopher, empiricist

Pioneers of Psychology
Match each of the pioneers of psychology with their descriptions AND write in the approximate year of their main contribution.

__1895____ Calkins (__G____) 1879 A. Studied memory

__1855_ Ebbinghaus (__A___) 1882 B. First psychotherapy

__1900____ Freud (_B_____) 1885 C. First lab in USA

__1888____ Hall (____E__) 1888 D. Used introspection

__1882____ James (__C____) 1890 E. First comprehensive textbook

__1890____ Titchener (__D____) 1895 F. First psychology laboratory

__1879____ Wundt (___F___) 1900 G. First woman president of APA

20th Century Psychology
Match each of the key contributors with their descriptions AND write in the approximate year of their main contribution.

__G____ Chomsky (__1910____)1905 A. Studied learning in cats

__C____ Maslow (___1905___)1910 B. First woman PhD

___D___ Pavlov (_1915__) 1915 C. Discovered conditioning

__F____ Piaget (___1940___) 1920 D. Founded behaviorism

____A__ Rogers (____1920__) 1940 E. Studied reinforcement

_____B_ Skinner (____1955__) 1950 F. Studied children’s intelligence

____E__ Thorndike (____1950__)1955 G. Studied language

_____H_ Washburn (_____1970_)1960 H. Humanist approach

___I___ Watson (____1960__) 1970 I. Humanistic therapy

3. HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION

Name: Feng Gan Section:

Date: 2/14/2012

This activity describes what researchers have learned about the special abilities of the left and right sides of the brain. You will learn how information is transmitted to these two hemispheres and about the unique function of each.

Hemispheric Connections

What is the name of the band of fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain? What is its function?

The corpus callosum. It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.

Each hemisphere is primarily connected to the opposite side of the body. This means that a touch on the left hand would be registered in which hemisphere?

The right hemisphere.

When sound waves enter the right ear, which hemisphere receives the primary information?

The left hemisphere.

This cross-over pattern is also true in part for the visual pathway. When light enters the left eye, which hemisphere receives the information?

The both hemispheres.

How is the visual pathway from the eye different from that of the ear or hand?

Both eyes have temporal retina and nasal retina. The right eye’s temporal retina and left eye’s nasal retina connect to right hemisphere, and the right eye’s nasal retina and left eye’s temporal retina connect to left hemisphere.

Split-brain Research

Briefly explain split-brain research.

Studying the function of brain.

If a participant is blindfolded and a fork is placed in his/her right hand, how would you guess that the person would respond?

If a participant is blindfolded and a fork is placed in his/her left hand, how would you guess that the person would respond?

Split-brain Research (continued)

A split-brain patient can name an unseen object placed in the right hand, but cannot name objects placed in the left hand. What does this suggest about the language abilities of the two hemispheres?

The patient has problem on his/her left hemisphere’s Wernicke's area.

In an additional experiment, words are flashed briefly to the left or right visual field of the participant. Try to predict the results. For example, when the word appears in the left visual field (LVF), will the person be able to read the word?

No, he cannot.

In a different task, a split-brain patient has to look at a completed block pattern and assemble the blocks near his/her right hand to match the pattern, using only the right hand. Can the patient do it? Explain your thinking.

Yes, he can. Eyes can send information to both sides of brain. Right hemisphere can control right hand to match the pattern.

Why is it that normal humans (with an intact corpus callosum) can name objects placed in either hand and easily read words flashed to either visual field?

Because brain can collect the energy from the objects and send it to the brain. Brain will combination the energy become the picture that the human saw and send it to Wernicke's area. This area let human can name the object.

6. VISUAL ILLUSIONS

Name: Feng Gao Section:

Date: 2/26/2012

This activity offers the opportunity to test your susceptibility to four famous illusions by having you adjust the length or position of one part of the stimulus in order to match the apparent length or position of another part.

The Müller-Lyer Illusion
What were your results on the Müller-Lyer Illusion test?

I feel that the line with two outward lines is longer than another one.

How is this illusion related to depth perception?

The retinal size of an object stays the same but the perception of its distance increases, we will perceive the object as being longer.

What were your results on the second Müller-Lyer Illusion test? ____________

Both are same size.

Was your pattern of performance similar to the first set of trials, or did the explanation of the illusion affect your performance? Describe your performance on the two sets of trials, indicating whether you did anything on the second set of trials to compensate for the illusion.

I feel both are the same. At the first time, I saw the picture without prepared. My depth perception tells me that one is longer. At the second time, I know that both are the same. My brain rejects the illusion, and shows me that both are the same. I think that I get the intimated from the first trial. To intimate my brain that both objects are the same.

The Ponzo Illusion
What were your results on the Ponzo Illusion test? ____________

I feel that the closer line is longer than farther line.

How is this illusion related to size constancy and depth perception?

The retinal size of an object stays the same but the perception of its distance decreases that we feel the farther line is shorter.

Considering the explanation for this illusion, would you expect this illusion to be affected by culture? Explain your answer.

I think the illusion will be affected by our experience. In natural world, when we saw far things, we will see that the farther things are smaller, even though both are the same size. So when we see the pictures which structure look like what we feel the things are smaller. The brain will base on the experience, let the distance increase or decrease. I think this is what the brain make the illusion was affected by culture.

What were your results on the second Ponzo Illusion test? ____________

At the second time, I found that all the lines are the same size.

Did knowing the cause of this illusion help you overcome your susceptibility to it on your second trial? Explain your thinking

Yes, knowing the cause will help me to reject the illusion. I think it because that when our brain know the reason of illusion, brain will remove the wrong factors to make a right decision.

The Horizontal-Vertical Illusion
What were your results on the Horizontal-Vertical Illusion test? ____________

I feel the vertical line is longer.

What are the two factors related to this illusion?

Size constancy and shape constancy.

What were your results on the second Horizontal-Vertical Illusion test? ____________

Both are the same.

Did knowing the cause of this illusion help you overcome your susceptibility to it on your second trial? Explain your thinking.

After knowing the reason, I was more careful about length and shape. I found that the twp line become the same size. I think is because, I know what make illusion happened, my brain become more careful about these things and it reduce the wrong factor to make the image right.

The Poggendorf Illusion
What were your results on the Poggendorf Illusion test? ____________

I saw the lines of both sides of the middle black line are different lines.

How is this illusion related to depth perception?

Even two parts of line are the same line but the depth perception will tacit indicate they are two different lines.

What were your results on the second Poggendorf Illusion test? ____________

It is one line cross a black thick middle line.

Did knowing the cause of this illusion help you overcome your susceptibility to it on your second trial? Explain your thinking.

Knowing the reason of the illusion, it help my brain to fix the depth perception to reduce to wrong factors, and have a right image.

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