Pollution of environment

Pollution of environmentThe most appropriate definition of environmental pollution would be the introduction of different harmful pollutants into certain environment that make this environment unhealthy to live in. The most common pollutants are usually chemicals, garbage, and waste water. Environmental pollution is happening in many parts of the world, especially in form of air and water pollution. The best example for air pollution are some of China's cities, including capital Beijing, and the best example for water pollution is India with its Ganges river pollution problem.

Globally speaking environmental pollution problem is much bigger than we think it is, even in many our cities there are problems with dirty air, or sound pollution from traffic and different other disturbing noises. The most severe environmental pollution is happening in developing countries of the third world because not only to they lack any form of sustainable management but they also lack even the basic sanitation so you can imagine how bad is the environmental condition in these countries.

Pollution of the environment is causing great damage to ecosystem that depend upon the health of this environment. Air and water pollution can cause death of many organisms in given ecosystem, including humans. Water pollution according to some estimates cause 14.000 deaths each day in the world, most of +
them in India. This is really no surprise when you look at the data that says that 700 million Indians do not even have access to a proper toilet, whether alone clean water.

Many developed countries have introduced certain laws to not only regulate various types of pollution but also the laws to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. Pollution levels need to be controlled all the time if we want to keep our environment safe and healthy. Without proper pollution control environment soon becomes unhealthy. Preventing introduction of pollutants into some environment is the best way to protect environment from pollution. To do so it is important to develop ecological conscience of nearby communities, and effective waste management in form of recycling.

Healthy environment is prerequisite of healthy life for us and our children, and fighting pollution is definitely the best way to keep our environmental healthy. Interesting facts about pollution on our planet
Americans use approximately 2.2 billion pounds of pesticides every year. Many of these pesticides are very harmful to environment. For instance more than 100 active pesticide ingredients are suspected of causing cancer, birth defects, and various other health problems.

46% of American lakes are too polluted for fishing, swimming, or aquatic life.

More than one third of China's Yellow River is not only safe for drinking but is also unsafe for industrial use (water pollution worse than level 5).

The main sources of pollution are definitely industry and vehicles. Country that is currently world's biggest polluter is China followed by United States.

China's annual CO2 Emissions were in 2007 6.01 billion tonnes of CO2 compared to US 5.90 billion tonnes. It has to also said that China has lot more people than US.

About 80 % of urban waste in India ends up in rivers which is the main reason behind India's water pollution problem.

Asian rivers are rivers most polluted in the world. They have three times as many bacteria from human waste as the global average. Of course these rivers are also responsible for many waterborne diseases. Some reports say that each year there are about 250 million cases of water-related diseases, with approximately 5 to 10 million deaths.

Approximately about 80% of the pollution in seas and oceans comes from land-based activities.

Less than 1% of the world's oceans, and only about 4% of coastal waters are protected which attributes to global ocean and sea pollution.

As long as world sticks with fossil fuels as dominant energy sources pollution is very likely to grow even further. Clean renewable energy would make excellent ally in fight against pollution.

In order to keep our seas and oceans clean we need to have some advanced monitoring systems that would give us an early warning signs for all types of pollution so we can prevent the worst. Our oceans are experiencing many different forms of pollution: ever-increasing climate change impact is having a major negative effect as warming water is provoking fish migrations, while a rising level of CO2 makes our oceans and seas more acidic. And of course there are also oil spills that remain a constant threat to marine environment.

Luckily there is Marine Environmental Remote-controlled Measuring And Integrated Detection (MERMAID) which represents an international team of scientists and engineers who have developed automatic sensors and analyzers, mounted on a network of radio-controlled stations, to sample, measure and record chemical and biological changes to water in our ocean and seas.

This helped set the foundations for reliable, widespread monitoring systems that provide accurate early warning of pollution, allowing marine authorities to take timely counter-measures to prevent catastrophe.

MERMAID showed its true worth at a heavily polluted maritime ecosystem, namely the European North Sea, where for the first time in history it was possible to detect in real-time "polluting events" such as algal blooms with associated heavy metal enrichment or the sudden release of nutrients from swollen rivers.

Hopefully MERMAID will open the door for many more advanced evaluating and measuring systems that would not only measure and evaluate but also to prevent the worst types of ocean and sea pollution.

CO2 emissions are causing ocean acidification that threatens survival of wide variety marine organisms.

This rapidly increasing acidity has potential to hamper the ability of many different marine creatures (such as corals) to form calcium carbonate shells and skeletal structures. Scientists are warning that ocean acidification is exceptionally harmful in the larval and juvenile stages in the lives of many marine invertebrates, because ocean acidification not only inhibits calcification, but also affects reproduction and growth in some marine organisms.

As you can see scientists are as usually warning the world, but politics as usually fails to listen their warnings. Reducing carbon emissions is not only important because of ocean acidification but for the whole climate change issue, and all problems related to global warming and climate change. World still awaits obligatory international agreement that would really make the difference, and ensure that all world countries reduce carbon emission levels.

Ganges river, the largest river in India, does not only have problem with pollution but is also becoming more salty because of sea levels rise.

Indian university in the city of Kolkata that published this study was very surprised with the discovery of the mangrove plants, a rare phenomenon along the Ganges river belt, that usually live 100 km (60 miles) away in the swampy Sundarban archipelago spread over a 26,000 sq km (10,000 sq mile) area on the world's largest delta region. They also spotted more saline water fish in the river as Ganges river is becoming more and more salty. It looks like Ganges river does not only have problem with pollution but also with salinity.

Citarum river in Indonesia is one of the world's most polluted rivers

In order to start cleaning pollution as soon as possible Indonesian government will get a loan package of $ 500 million over the next 15 years that should be enough for restoration of Citarum's river basin by supporting different sanitation projects and construction of waste treatment plants in the river basin in order to ensure safe water supply to millions of people.

Water resources problem is one the biggest problems not only in Indonesia but in many other countries in Asia like for instance China (Yangtze) and India (Ganges). With the vast number of people that live in these areas these countries are facing serious problem of not only water shortage but possible pandemic level of waterborne diseases. Therefore, successful water management is one of the key questions that needs to be answered. The lives of millions of people in Asia are at stake.

Air pollution is not only huge environmental threat but also huge threat to human health that has particularly negative impact on children. Young children are much more vulnerable to air pollution than adults, and exposure to air pollution in early years can cause long-lasting health problems. People who were in their childhood exposed to severe levels of air pollution also often have lower IQ compared to people who didn't have problems with clean air in their early days.

The dangerous air pollutants come from variety of different sources such as motor vehicles, steel and chemical- manufacturing industries, power plants, rubber, wood and plastic products, etc.

How do we protect our children from these pollutants? The first thing that local government needs to do is to thoroughly inspect potential school site, analyzing not only the quality of air but also the quality of water and soil. The school should be located far away from the major sources of air pollution (motorways and industries), and there should be legal standards for a minimum distance between sources of pollution and school location.

The governments, both on local as well as the federal level need to ensure adequate environmental and health policies to reduce children's potential exposure to pollution, and create healthy school environment with clean air.

There are many schools that are built in areas close to polluting industrial facilities, major highways and other potentially hazardous sites. Why? Because these are the areas where property values are low, and costs are often the determining factor in choosing the future school site.

The determining factor shouldn’t be costs, it should be environmental quality of potential areas. In United States, for instance half of all states do not require any prior environmental evaluation about the future location of school which means that there are many schools in United States who are likely exposed to significant levels of air pollution.

Schools located near the major sources of air pollution are huge threat to children's health, and there is a huge need for proactive school policies that will protect children from overexposure to air pollution.

When discussing the worst kind of pollution people talk about either water pollution or air pollution. Water pollution and air pollution not only harm our environment but also our health. Recent estimates say that around 15,000 people in the world die each day because of the water pollution, while according to the data from the World Health Organization 2.4 million people in the world die each year because of the air pollution.

Waste water and sewage waste are the two biggest causes of water pollution. World population is increasing each year, which means that each year there is more waste compared to previous year(s). According to recent estimates world generates 400 billion tons of industrial waste each year, plenty of which ends up in different water bodies causing huge environmental and health damage.

Despite the fact that we now live in the 21st century there is still more than billion people worldwide who lack access to safe drinking water, and more than two billion people in the world live without proper sanitation systems. When you consider this, the fact that diarrhea causes around 1,5 million deaths of children each year shouldn't be really surprising us.

Air pollution doesn't only refer to outdoor but also indoor air pollution, in fact according to the recent estimates indoor air pollution is responsible for more deaths compared to outdoor air pollution (1,5 million deaths per year as the result of indoor air pollution compared to little less than one million deaths per year caused by outdoor air pollution).

The main sources of air pollution are traffic and industry. Air pollution coming from traffic is causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Air pollution is not only issue in many China's cities but also in several U.S. cities such as Los Angeles and Pittsburgh.

How can we fight against water and air pollution? The most obvious answer would be to tackle the main sources of the pollution but this is anything but easy, especially in developing world.

The fight against water and air pollution does not only require global environmental conscience but also very large funding, which is why developing world is finding fight against pollution particularly hard.

On the other hand our industry and our vehicles still need fossil fuels because renewable energy is still not ready to jump in and make the difference.

In current situation it is almost impossible to find some logical foundation that would give us the right to an optimistic point of view in regards to pollution.

California is the US state most affected with air pollution. Air quality in some parts of California is doing serious health damage to many people. The cities in California such as Los Angeles, Bakersfield, and Visalla-Porterville, are among the most polluted cities in United States.

Only area around Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania has worst air compared to these Californian cities. The 2008 Cal State Fullerton study found that air pollution in California is killing more people than car crashes do, and this study also stated that pollution levels must fall by 50 percent in both regions for health and economic benefits to occur in California. This however, looks almost impossible to achieve.

It is estimated that there are around 175 million of people in United States which live in areas affected with air pollution, and California accounts for more than third of this number.

Why is air pollution issue so expressed in California? The answer is quite simple, the combination of lot of cars and lot of sunlight.

Air pollution in California isn't only causing serious environmental and health damage but also huge economic damage. The Rand Corporation study has found that polluted air in California accounts each year for around $193 million in hospital costs. They also found out that Los Angeles County spent the most in the state on air pollution-related ailments.

If we look at the top ten cities in the United States with the worst air pollution, California cities have 8 out of 10 for ozone (including the first six on this list, 5 out of 10 for annual particle pollution, and 7 out of 10 for short-term particle pollution.

Bakersfield, California is very likely the city with the worst air pollution in United States.

It is estimated that air pollution kills around 25,000 people each year in California.

Oil spills are creating different forms of ocean pollution, and the latest study published in the journal Water Research has even revealed that oil spills can also increase levels of toxic arsenic in the ocean, creating an additional long-term threat to many marine ecosystems.

Arsenic is poisonous material that is found in oil, and high levels of arsenic in seawater can enable the toxin to enter the food chain where it can create huge damage to many marine organisms. The negative effects of arsenic in seawater include disruption of photosynthesis process in marine plants, different genetic alterations that can cause birth defects, and it can also kill animals such as birds that feed on sea creatures affected by arsenic.

Though arsenic occurs naturally in the oceans, sediments on the sea floor filter it out of seawater, which keeps the levels of naturally occurring arsenic low. Oil spills can somewhat block the ocean's natural filtration system and prevent this from cleaning arsenic out of the seawater, which would significantly increase the levels of arsenic in seawater.
The researchers from the Imperial College London have discovered that oil spills and leakages clog up sediments on the ocean floor with oil, which prevents the sediments from bonding with arsenic and burying it safely underground with subsequent layers of sediment. The scientists also explained that this shutdown of the natural filtration system causes arsenic levels in seawater to rise. Increased levels of arsenic in seawater means that arsenic can enter the marine ecosystems, where it becomes more concentrated and poisonous the further it moves up the food chain.

To connect this with the current oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico the scientists said how they "can't accurately measure how much arsenic is in the Gulf at the moment because the spill is ongoing". However, they have warned that the real danger lies in arsenic's ability to concentrate and accumulate, which means that each subsequent spill raises the levels of this pollutant in seawater.

Since thousands of gallons of oil are leaked into our oceans each year from not only big oil spills but also from offshore drilling and routine maintenance of rigs, many places may be at risk from increased arsenic levels, which could in the long run affect entire marine life, and also the people who rely on the oceans for their livelihoods.

Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noisethat disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness.
The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise.[1][2] Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.
Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, groundskeeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, electric megaphones and loud people.
Human health
Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature.[citation needed] The unwanted sound is called noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.[4][7]
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstratesignificantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79.[8] A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.[3]
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress[3] and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.[9] When unwanted sound created by human beings hits our ears and disturbs the environment, noise pollution is created. Chiefly, noise pollution comes from barking dogs, loud music, vehicles, aircraft and rail transport, air-conditioners, factories, amplified music and construction work.
Sources of noise: All transportation systems create noise pollution. With residences created adjacent to factories, they experience noise pollution and its adverse effects. Besides transportation noise, noise can come from factory appliances, power tools and audio entertainment systems.
Measures of noise: Noise pollution is measured in decibels. When noise is at 45 decibels, no human being can sleep, and at 120 decibels the ear is in pain and hearing begins to be damaged at 85 decibels.
Effects of noise pollution
Human health: Noise pollution disturbs our health and behavior in a number of ways including deafness causing lack of sleep, irritability, indigestion, heartburn, high blood pressure, ulcers, and heart disease. Just one noise explosion from a passing truck drastically alters our endocrinal, neurological, and cardiovascular functions in many individuals. If this is prolonged or frequent, the physiological disturbances become chronic and contribute to mental illness.
Annoyance: Sometimes, even low levels of noise are irritating and can be frustrating, and high volumes can be annoying. Natural sounds are less irritating than those we find uncontrollable but intermittent sounds such as a tap dripping water can be more irritating than the sound of falling rain.
Speech interference: Noise more than 50dB can be very difficult to hear and interpret and cause problems such as partial deafness.
Sleep interference: Very high levels of noise can wake people from their sleep with a jerk and keep them awake or disturb their sleep pattern. This could make them irritable and tired the next day.
Decreased work performance: Increased noise levels gives rise to a lack of concentration and accuracy at work, and reduce one’s productivity and performance. Difficult tasks can be impaired, and instructions or warnings difficult to be heard and interpreted, causing accidents.
How to avoid sources of noise pollution
Traffic: Don’t live or work near major intersections or roads, shopping centers and sporting facilities. Valleys and falls are noisier than flat roads.
Barking dogs: As a dog owner, you should take care to see that your dog doesn’t annoy the neighbors with its barking and yowling.
Aircraft: Before buying a home, see how far it is from the local airport.
Neighbors: Be a good neighbor by not annoying those who live next door with your music or lawn mowing.
Solving noise problems: Many noise problems can be prevented by considering others and talking through problems. Be a good and concerned neighbor by discussing a common problem calmly and in a collaborative spirit to find a common solution.

Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.[9]
Facts about Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
* At least 15% of adults have permanent hearing damage due to noise exposure.

* In 2005-2006, 20% of US adolescents 12 to 19 years old had some degree of hearing loss. This is up from 15% as measured in 1988-1994.
The World Health Organization reports that the single most common irreversible occupational hazard worldwide is noise-induced hearing impairment.

I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this project book.
My deepest thanks to teacher, the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed. I express my thanks to the Principal of, HOLY CROSS CONVENT SCHOOL, MIRA ROAD, Rev. Sister Mercy for extending his support. My deep sense of gratitude to all my teachers and friends of HOLY CROSS CONVENT SCHOOL, MIRA ROAD, for their support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people for their support.
I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers without whom this project would have been a distant reality. And especially to God, who made all things possible.
Thanking You,

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